Lectures of History

Lectures of History

Harappan Civilization and Vedic Age

 

Harappa Civilization– Timing – 2500 BC – 1750 BC

First Name– Harappa Civilization

Latest name– Indus valley civilization

Discovered – Charles Meson (1826)

First survey – Kaningham (1856) – (1861 ASI established)

Indus Valley Civilization Name – John Marshell

City River Place Excavator
Harappa Ravi Sahival Distt. (Punjab.Pak) Dayaram Sahani (1921)
Mohen-jo-daro Indus Larkana (Sindh.Pak) RD Banerjee (1922)

 

Harappa –

Mohen-jo-daro- Great Granary, Great Bath

Lothal – Ahmedabad – Dockyard

Kali Banga – Hanuman Garh (Rajasthan)- Ploughed field

Surkotda- Bones of Horse

Common Features of cities— Systematic town Planning, underground drainage system, fortified citadel

Main Crops– Wheat and Barley

Rice– Lothal, Ragpur (both Gujarat)

Animals– dog, cat, goat, bull, buffalo

Trade with Mesopotamia

Iron was not known, [Gold (kolar-Karnataka], Silver- Afghanistan, Copper-Khetri

Tin-Afghanistan

1st people to produce cotton (urban-Civilization)

No Temple, Mother Goddess, Pashupati Mahadeva (seal)

 

Vedic Literature

Vedas–  4 Vedas—Rigveda, YajurVeda, SamaVeda, Atharvaveda

Rigved—1st testament of mankind and oldest text (1028 Hymns ) – 10 Mandals

10th mandal Purushasukta – Explains 4 vernas—Brahman, kshatriya, vaishya, shudra

Sam veda-Related to Indian music

Yajur veda– Book of Sacrificial Prayers

Atharva Veda– Book of Magical formulae

Brahmans—Explanations of Vedas

Aranyaka –Forest Text

Upnishadas – 108 – Oldest – Vrihadaranyaka

6 Vedangas –     (i) Shiksha (Phonetics)

(ii) Kalpa (Rituals)

(iii) Vyakarna – (Grammer)

(iv) Nirukta – (Etymology)

(v) Chhanda – (Metrics)

(vi) Jyotish – (Astrology)

 Smrities – 6 Oldest – (Manu Smriti)

MahakavyasRamayana (Valmiki)

Mahabharata (Ved Vyas)

Puranas – (Old) 18           Oldest Matsya

Upvedas                                                                  Associate with

Ayurveda (medicine)                                                   Rigveda

Gandharva veda (Music)                                          Sama veda

Dhanurveda (archery)                                                 Yajur veda

Shilpaveda (science & craft)                                    Artharva veda

 

6 Darshans

Sankhya               –              Kapil

Yoga                      –              patanjali

Nyaya                   –              Gautama

Vaishashika        –              Uluka kanda

Purva Mimnsa   –              Jamini

Uttra Miwansa  –              Badarayana

 

Rivers– most mentioned in Rigveda- Sindhu, most pious- Saraswati

Sindhu- Indus

Sutudri- Sutlej

Vitasta- Jhelum

Kubha- Kabul

Askini – chinab

Gomati – Gomal

Parushni- ravi

 

Two popular assemblies – Sabha & Samiti.

Religion – Indra (250 rigvedic hymns), Agni (200 rigvedic hymns)

Savitri (The god of light) – Gayatri mantra is addressed to her

                Ashramas – Brahmacharya, Grihshtha, Vanprastha, Sanyas

Purusharthas to attain – Dharma, Artha, kama, moksha.

 

Pre Questions

  1. Which of the following deity is mostly described in Rigveda
  2. Indra
  3. Varuna
  4. Agni
  5. Sun
  1. What is the subject matter of the Upanishads
  2. Religion
  3. Yoga
  4. Philosophy
  5. Law
  1. The words “Satyamev Jayte” in the national emblem is taken from
  2. Upanishads
  3. Samveda
  4. Rigveda
  5. Ramayana
  1. How many varnas are discussed in ancient Indian literature
  2. 4
  3. 5
  4. 6
  5. 7
  1. Which one is the biggest structure of Indus Valley Civilization
  2. Great granary
  3. Great bathe
  4. Both are same in size
  5. None of the above

Buddhism & Jainism

16 Mahajanpadas– Magadh, Chedi, Kuru, Panchal, Avanti, Shursen, Matsya etc.

Important Republics– Shakya, Malla, Lichhavi (Vaishali)

4 Most powerful states– Magadh, Kosala, Vatsa, Avanti

Haryanaka Dynasty (544 BC – 412 BC)

  • Bimbisara- 544 BC – 412 BC, capital – Rajagriha. contemporary of Gautam Buddha,
  • Ajatshatru- 492 BC – 460 BC,
  • Udayin- 460 BC– 440 BC, establishment of Patliputra & made it his capital.
  • Naga Dashak (412 BC)

Shishunaga Dynasty- 412 – 344 BC.

Shishunaga- End of Avanti.

Kalasoka- convened 2nd Buddhist council – vaishali – 383 BC.

Nanda Dynasty- 344 BC – 323 BC.

 Mahapadamananda & Dhananada

End 322 – 321 BC

Ist foreign Invasion– Darius I (Iran)

Alexander (invasion) – 326 BC.

Battle of Vitasta/ Jhelam/ Hydaspes 326 BC [Alexander v. Porus (puru)]

Death of Alexander 323 BC (33 years age) Babylon.

Indian + Iranian Script = Kharoshthi Script (right to left),

Buddhism-

Founder– Gautama Buddha, Birth– 563 BC, Lumbini, Kapilvastu (Nepal), Father- Shudhodhana, Mother- Mahamaya, Mahaprajapati Gautami, Wife- Yashodhara, Son- Rahul, four sights– old man, diseased person, dead body, ascetic, Mahabhinishkramana, first teacher- Alar Kalama, Gyan-(Nirvana) (enlightment)-  Bodhgaya, Niranjana, Bodhi tree (Pipal), Name- Buddha or Tathagat, Ist sermon – Sarnath (UP),  (Dharmachakra Pravartan), Death 483 BC (80 age)- Kushinagar (U.P.)- Mahaparinirvana.

4 Noble Truths-

  • Life is full of sorrow
  • There are causes of sorrow
  • This sorrow can be stopped
  • There is a path leading to the cessation of sorrow – for this Ashtangik Marga.

Ashtangik Marga

  • Right observation,
  • Right determination,
  • Right speech,
  • Right action,
  • Right livelihood
  • Right exercise
  • Right memory
  • Right meditation

Madhya Marga– (the middle path) – man should avoid both extremes i.e. life of comfort/luxury and a life of severe asceticism.

Tri ratnas– Three jewels of Buddhism

  • Buddha
  • Dharma
  • Sangha

Buddhist Literature language – Pali

Tripitakas–  (i) Sutt Pitak                                    (ii) Vinay Pitaka                               (iii) Abhidhamma Pitaka

The dialogue between Menander (Indo- Greek) & Nagasena is in – Milindpanho.

Budda Charita – Ashwaghosh

Sects of Buddhism-

Hinayana– believed in original teaching of Buddha, not idol worship. Language – Pali,

Southern Buddhist Religion– Sri lanka, Myanmar, Thailand.

Mahayana– followers believed in heavenliness of Buddha, idol worship, Language – Sanskrit,

Northern Buddhist Religion –  China, Korea, Japan.

Stupas– Relics of Buddha, Chaitya– Prayer hall, Vihara – Residence/monasteries.

Events                  Symbols

Birth                      Lotus & Bull

Renunciation     Horse

Enlightment       Bodhi tree

First sermon       Wheel

Death                    Stupa

 

Buddhism Councils

S. No. Timings Place President King Work
1 483 BC Rajagriha Mahakashyapa Ajatshatru compilation of sutt & Vinay pitaka

 

2 383 BC Vaishali Sarvakami, Kalasoka  
3 250 BC Pataliputra Mogliputta Tisya Asoka compilation of Abhidhamma Pitaka

 

4 98 AD Kundalvana (Kashmir) Vasumitra & Ashvaghosh Kanishka Division in 2 sects

 

 

Patrons- Bimbisara, Ajatshatru, Prasenjit, Udayin, Asoka, Menander, Kanishka, Harshvardhana etc.

 

Jainism

24 Tirthankara, 1st – Rishabha Dev, 23rd – Parswanath, 24th – Mahavir Swami,

Parswanath– Satya, Ahimsa, Asteya, Aparigriha (non- possession).

Mahavira- Birth- 540 BC, Kundagrama (Vaishali) (Bihar)-Father Siddhartha, Mother- Trishala

wife- Yashoda, daughter Anojja Priyadarshini, kaivalya, (supreme Knowledge)-  Rijupalika river, Saal tree, Jambhikagram

Called– Kevalin, jin, Jitendriya, Nirgrantha and Mahavir)

Ist sermon– Pava, Death– 468 BC, Pavapuri (Bihar) (Age- 72 Yrs)

Triratna or three gems of Jainism– Samyak Gyan, Samyak Darshan, Samyak Charitra,

Pancha Mahavrata– five vows- Satya, Ahimsa, Asteya, Aparigraha, Brahamcharya.

Principles- (i) Don’t believe in God, (ii) Believed in Karma and Transmigration of Soul.

Language– Prakrit

Important text– Kalpasutra-  Bhadrabahu.‌‍

Sects– Shwetambar, Digambar

Temples– Dilwara, Palitana, statue of Gometeshwar/Bahubali – Shravanbelagola (Karnataka)

Patrons – Bimbisar, Ajatshatru, Udayin, Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, Kharvela,

Jain Councils

S. No. Timings Place President King
1 300 BC Patliputra Sthulabhadra Chandragupta Maurya,

 

2 512 AD Vallabhi (Gujarat) Devardhi Mahashravana

Pre. Questions

  1. In Buddhist terminology, the word ‘Dharmachakra Pravartana’ indicates the
  2. Belief in the cycle of life and death
  3. Attainment of Nirvana by Buddha
  4. First sermon by Buddha
  5. Personal religion of the Chakravarti

 

  1. The third Buddist council was summoned by
  2. Chandragupta Maurya
  3. Ashok
  4. Bimbisar
  5. Kanishka

 

  1. Who wrote ‘Kalpasutra’
  2. Bhadrabahu
  3. Sthalabahu
  4. Mahavira
  5. Parsvanath

 

  1. The second Buddhist Council was summoned by
  2. Bimbisara
  3. Kalashoka
  4. Ananda
  5. Asoka

 

  1. There were four councils in Buddhism. At which place was the fourth council held
  2. Rajgriha
  3. Vaishali
  4. Pataliputra
  5. Kundalvan

 

Maurya Dynasty

 

Sources

Literary- Arthshastra- Kautilya (Chanakya), Indica- Magasthenese, Mudrarakshasa- Vishakhdutt,

Jataka-Stories

Ashokan Edicts- Rock, Pillar edicts & Cave inscription (first read by James Princep – 1837),

Important Edicts of Ashoka ->

(i) Rock – Total 14, Mansehra – Pak, Sehbajgarhi – Pak, Junagarh – Gujarat.

(ii) Minor Rock – Maski (Karnataka)

(iii) Pillar Edicts- Meerut, Topra (Yamuna Nagar Haryana), Gurjara – M.P., Lauriya Nandangarh – Bihar, Sanchi – M.P., Sarnath, Allahabad (U.P.), Rummandei/ Lumbini – Nepal, Barabar Cave edicts – Barabar (Bihar).

(iv) Junagarh Rock inscription- Rudradaman,

 

Chandra Gupta- 322- 298 BC, battle with Selucus Niketor 305 BC, Religion- Jain, death-Shravanbelgola

Bindusara- 298 – 273 BC, Amitraghata,

Asoka- 273 – 232 BC, succession war 273 – 269 BC, throne 269 BC, Kalinga war – 261 BC, 9th year of his coronation), missionaries to Ceylon, Burma, Syria , Egypt, Macadonia, Name- Devanam Priya, Asoka only in Gujara & Maski,

Last Mauryan – Brihadratha, assassinated by Pushyamitra Shunga in 185 BC

7 elements of States

Provinces->

(i) Eastern– Kalinga (ii) Western– Avanti (iii) Northern– Uttarapatha  (iv) Southern- Dakshinapath (v) Central– Prachi

 

Tax : ¼ to 1/6.

Stupa- Sanchi (M.P.),  Sarnath (U.P.),

House Caves of Mauryan empire for Monks – Barabar, Sultanpur (Bihar)- Asoka, Nagarjuna Caves (Gaya) Dashrath.

Language – Prakrit, script – Kharoshthi, Greek & Brahmi

 

Pre Questions

  1. Who wrote ‘Arthashastra’
  2. Chandragupta
  3. Fa-Hien
  4. Kautilya
  5. None of the above

 

  1. In which edict the real name of ‘Asoka’ is found
  2. Maski
  3. Meerut
  4. Sarnath
  5. Lumbini

 

  1. Who bring the edicts from Meerut and Topra to Delhi
  2. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
  3. Akbar
  4. Qutubuddin Aibak
  5. Feroz Shah Tughlaq

 

  1. Where is Sarnath edict is situated
  2. MP
  3. Maharashtra
  4. UP
  5. Bihar
  6. Which of the following was the most important element of the state
  7. Janpada
  8. Kosha
  9. Amatya
  10. King

Shunga Dynasty- 185 BC – 73 BC, Pushyamitra (Brahman), Bharhut Stupa – M.P. (Satna), Last Devbhuti.

Kanva Dynasty73 BC – 28 BC, Vasudev,

Saatvahana Dynasty– 60 BC – 225 AD, Simuk, Greatest Satvahana Ruler Gautamiputra Shatkarni (106 – 130 AD.), Last king Pulamavi-III,

 coins of lead. Chaityas – Nasik, Kanheri & Karle

Chedi Dynasty of Kalinga3rd ruler- Kharvela- Hathigumpha inscription- Bhubaneshwar.

(Orissa), Patron of Jainism & constructed Udaygiri hills near Bhubaneshwar.

Foreigner successors of Mauryas

  1. Indo-Greeks– In north-west India, Most famous- Menander (165 BC-145 BC), Buddhism by Nagasena or Nagarjuna, Repaired Sudarshan Lake (Saurashtra), 1st kings to issue gold coins in India.
  2. Sakas- 1st century BC-4th century AD. Most famous- Rudradaman (130AD- 150AD) Repaired Sudarshan Lake. 58BC- Ujjaini King- Vikramaditya fought against Sakas & start “Vikrama Samvat”.
  3. Kushanas– 1st – 3rd AD. 1st dynasty founder- Kujul kadphises,

2nd dynasty’s famous ruler- Kanishka (78-101 AD), 2 capitals- Purushpur (Peshavar) & Mathura, started an era in 78 AD named- Saka samvat, Controlled Silk route. First rulers to issue gold coins on large scale.

Famous courtiers– Vasumitra, Ashwaghosh, Nagarjuna or Nagasena and Charak.

South Indian Kingdoms-

  1. Cheras– Kerala & Tamilnadu
  2. Cholas– Maintained an efficient navy
  3. Pandyas Tirunelvelli & Madurai (Tamilnadu)

Sangam period

 (1st – 3rd century AD). Total Sangam-3

Tolkappiyam- Tolakappiyar (2nd Sangam),

Bible of Tamil land– Kural or Muppal

Iliad of Tamil Poetry– Silappadikaram

Sequel of Silappadikaram– Mani Mekalai

Pre Questions

 

  1. Who owned the “Silk Route”
  2. Cholas
  3. Cheras
  4. Kushanas
  5. Sakas
  1. The first book on Tamil grammer, written in Sangam age, is
  2. Buddhacharita
  3. Tolkappiyam
  4. Mani Mekalai
  5. None of the above
  1. Who started Saka Samvat
  2. Pushyamitra Shunga
  3. Chandragupta Maurya
  4. Chadragupta Vikramaditya
  5. Kanishka
  1. Who issue firstly gold coins in India
  2. Indo-Greek
  3. Saka
  4. Kushanas
  5. Cholas
  1. Who was not the courtier of Kanishka
  2. Ashwaghosh
  3. Charak
  4. Kalidas
  5. Vasumitra

 

Gupta Period

Golden age or classical age

First ruler– Srigupta, around 275 AD, Capital- Patliputra

2nd– Ghatotkach

3- Chandragupta-Ist, 319-334 AD, started Gupta era in 319-20 AD

4- Samudragupta– 335-380 AD- Greatest king- Prayaga prashasti/Allahabad Pillar inscription (Ashoka’s), written by Harisena, Called as- Indian Napoleon, Kaviraj- Prayag Prashasti, Garud type coins, Veena vadan, Samudragupta- Vaishnav.

Ramgupta- but for very short time, Copper coins

5- ChandraguptaIInd – Vikramaditya, 380-414 AD, first Gupta to issue silver coins due to Saka win, 2nd capital Ujjain, Mehrauli- iron pillar

Navaratnas- Kalidasa, Amarsinh, Dhanvantri, Varahmihira,

Fahien- 399-414 AD, Book- Fo-gu-oji

6- Kumargupta Ist – 415-455 AD, Attacks by Huns, Nalanda University established.

7- Skandagupta- 455-467 AD, Bhitari Pillar inscription (Ghajipur, UP) in Huna defeat,

Huna Kings– Tormana & Mihirkula,

Mihirkula– Shaivite & persecutor of Buddhism, in 530 Huns uprooted by Yashodharaman of Mandsaur (MP)

Last gupta ruler- Vishnugupta (540-550 AD)

Inscriptions-

Samudragupta-   Prayaga prashasti/Allahabad Pillar inscription,

Chandragupta II- Mehrauli Iron pillar

Skandagupta – Junagarh rock, Bhitari Pillar (Ghajipur, UP)

Administration- Decentralized

Tax– ¼ to 1/6,

Varna system got modified,

Idol worship on large scale & first time idol worship of Vishnu and Shiva

Untouchability appears to have intensify, ‘Asprasya’ word from Katyayana

Position of women deteriorated

Sati- Bhanugupta’s Eran inscription- 510 AD Eran (MP)

Idol worship became common feature to Hinduism, First time images of Vishnu, Shiva & other gods

Trade to South East Asian nations

Ports– Tamralipti & Bharoch

Culture-

1 Rock cut caves– Ajanta & Ellora (Maharashtra), Bagh- MP,

  1. Temples– Deogarh Dasavtara temple (Jhansi- UP), Bhumra- Shiva Temple (MP), Nachana Kuthwa- MP

Bhittargaon temple of bricks- Kanpur

  1. Stupas– Dhammekh – Saranath

Nagara style- Shikhar & Garbha griha

Gandhar sculptures  mainly Mathura

Best specimen image- Seated Buddha image (Saranath)

Paintings of Ajanta– Aurangabad (Maharashtra), Bagh- Dhar (MP)

Language- Sanskrit

Famous Books-

Smrities-Narad, Brihaspati & Katyayan

Kalidasa- Ritusamhar, Meghadutam, Kumar Sambhavam, Malvikagnimitram, Vikramorvishiyam, Abhijnan Shakuntalam

Amarsinh- Amarkosh

Dhanvantri- Navanitakam- Medicine text

Varahamihira- Vrihat Samhita, Panch Siddhantaka,

Visakhadutta- Mudra-rakshas

Dandi- Dasa Kumar Charita

Sudraka- Mrichchhkatikam

Vishnu Sharma- Panchtantra

 

Pre Questions

  1. Who was the most famous ruler of Gupta period-
  2. Chandragupta II
  3. Samudragupta
  4. Skandagupta
  5. Chandragupta I
  6. Paintings of Ajanta is related to
  7. Hinduism
  8. Jainism
  9. Buddhism
  10. All of the above
  11. Fa-hien came to India during whose reign
  12. Shrigupta
  13. Bhanugupta
  14. Chandragupta I
  15. Chandragupta II
  16. The wins of Samudragupta are written in
  17. Bhittri Inscription
  18. Mehrauli Inscription
  19. Prayaga prashasti
  20. None of the above
  21. What is the subject matter of Bhanugupta’s Eran inscription
  22. Varna system
  23. Tax system
  24. Sati pratha
  25. None of the above

Pushyabhuti or Vardhan Dynasty (550 AD- 647 AD)

Founder– Pushyabhuti in the timing of last guptas feudal

First important ruler– Prabhakarvardhan (580-605),

Rajyavardhan (605-606)

Harshavardhana (606-647)– Defeat Shashanka(King of Gaud or North west Bengal), Capital Thaneshwar

(Kurukshetra) first expedition to Gaud was not successful due to Shashank but after death of Shashank (637) succeed. Harsha & Pulkeshin II (Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi/Badami, Karnataka), Hiuen-Tsang came (635-643) Book- Su-Yu-Ki, Prayag & Kannauj assemblies Harsha- Shaiva but equal respect to Mahayan (Buddhism), Harsha death- 647 AD,

3 Sanskrit plays– Nagananda, Ratnavali, Priyadarshika,

Banabhatta- Harshacharita & Kadambari

South Indian States-

  1. Chalukya of Vatapi/ Badami-543-755, First Pulkeshin I, capital- Vatapi, Bijapur (Karnataka),

Pulkeshin II (609-642) Aihole inscription (writer- Ravikirti),

Vesara or Deccan style of temples started by Chalukyas, most famous Virupaksha temple- Pattadakal (Karantaka)

  1. Pallavas of Kanchi 575-897- first famous ruler Simhavishnu, capital- Kanchi (Tamilnadu),

Dravid style of temples– rath temples of Mahabalipuram, Kailashnath temple of Kanchi

Important Rajput Kingdoms-

Chauhan– capital Delhi, founder- Vasudeva

Gurjar Pratihaar/ Pratihaar – capital- Ujjain, founder Nagabhatta I

Rashtrakuta- Capital Manyakheta, founder Dantidurga

Sisodia/ Guhilota– Capital Chittorgarh, founder Bappa rawal, Hammir I

Three great powers of India– Palas in East, Gurjar Pratihaar in North & Rashtrakutas in Deccan

Palas –(750-1150)- founder- Gopala, capital- Munger,

Dharampal (770-810) revived Nalanda University & founded Vikramshila University (Bihar),

After Palas- Sen dynasty– laxman sen’s courtier Jayadeva- Gita gobinda

Gurjar Pratihaar (730-1036)- capital Ujjain, founder Nagabhatta I, greatest ruler Mihir Bhoj or Bhoj (836-882) devotee of Vishnu

Rashtrakuta (752- 973), capital Manyakheta (Gulbarga, Karnataka),

greatest rulers– Govind III (793-814) & Amoghavarsha (814-878),

Amoghavarsha wrote Kavirajamarga,

Kailashnath (Shiva) temple of Ellora built by Krishna I

Other important rulers before Delhi sultanate

Prithviraj Chauhan (1178-1192) – first battle of Tarain- 1191. Second- 1192, Mohammad ghori (Afghan)

Jaichand (1169-1194) – Killed in Chandavar battle-1194 (Mohammad ghori)

Famous Temples – Khajuraho (MP),  Lingaraj temple of Bhubaneswar (Orissa), Sun temple (Konarka-Orissa), Jagannatha temple Puri (Orissa), Dilwara Mount Abu (Rajasthan)

Anangpal tomar– around 1051 establish Delhi

 

Pre Questions

  1. Which of the following is not the book of Harshavardhana
  2. Ratnavali
  3. Harshacharita
  4. Priyadarshika
  5. Nagananda
  1. Who was the founder of Rashtrakuta dynasty
  2. Vasudeva
  3. Parantak
  4. Dantidurga
  5. None of the above
  1. Who founded Vikramshila University
  2. Chandragupta Maurya
  3. Dharampala
  4. Asoka
  5. Samudragupta

Sultanate Period (1206 – 1526)

First Muslim Invasion – 712 (Mohammad Bin Qasim)

First Turk Invasion – Mohamud Ghaznavi 1000 AD, Somnath Temple – invasion- 1025.

Second Turk Invasion – Mohammad Ghori – 1175 Multan, 1206- founder of Muslim Rule.

Reasons of Turk Success:-

  1. Lack of Unity in Rajputs
  2. No central govt.
  3. Weak org.

Delhi Sultanate:-

  1. Ghulam (Slave) – 1206 – 1290
  2. Khilji – 1290 – 1320
  3. Tughlaq – 1320 – 1414
  4. Sayyad – 1414 – 1451
  5. Lodhi – 1451 – 1526

Slave

  • Qutubuddin Aibak – 1206 – 1210, died in 1210, Qutub Minar, Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque and Adhai din ka Jhonpra (Ajmer), After him Aram Baksh.
  • Iltutmish – 1210 – 1236, real founder of Delhi Sultanate, made Delhi Capital in place of Lahore, Changez Khan Attack 1221, introduced tanka – (Silver), Jital (Copper), Iqta system, Turkan-A-Chihalghani or Chalisa, completed- Qutub Minar, first ruler to ensure his position by Khalifa of Baghdad (1229).
  • Ruknuddin – 1236, son of Iltutmish
  • Razia Sultana – 1236 – 1240, first & only Muslim lady ruler to India, Husband Altunia (governor of Bhatinda), murdered- 1240, (Kaithal- Haryana).
  • Nasiruddin Mahmud– 1246 – 1266.
  • Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266 – 1287), Broke the power of Chalisa, strong centralized army sijda & Paibos, iron & Blood strategy
  • Kaiqubad (1287 – 1290) – Grandson of Balban.
  • Khilji Dysnasty:-
  • Jalaluddin Khilji- (1290 – 1296)
  • Alauddin Khilji (1296 – 1316), first Sultan to win South India, (army led by Malik Kafur- Hajaar Dinari), system of Dagh (horses) & Huliya (soldiers), Alai Darwaja, courtier – Amir Khusrau, Tabla, controlling system of market, Abolition of Iqta.
  • Mubarak Shah Khilji (1316 – 1320)
  • Khusrau Khan – 1320 – killed by Ghazi Malik.
  • Tughlaq Dynasty:-
  • GhiyasuddinTughlaq (1320 – 1325), other name Ghazi Malik, Ist canal, Tughlaqabad
  • Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325 – 1351), other name Jouna Khan, 5 Ambitions projects- (a) Taxation in Doab (1326),

(b) Transfer of Capital (1327) – Delhi to Daultabad

(c) Introduction of Token currency (1329),

(d) Khurasan expedition (1329)

(e) Qarachil expedition (1330)

Diwan-i-Kohi, (department head of Agriculture), died in Thatta (Sindh),

(iii) Firoz Shah Tughlaq: 1351 – 1388, cousin of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, principle of heredity to     army & countiers, 1st to introduce Jizya.

Taxes: Kharaj land tax, Khams- booty captured during war, Jizya, Jakat – property tax, largest no. of canals, fatehabad, Hisar, Jaunpur, Firozabad, 2 pillars of Asoka – Meerut & Topra, Diwan-i-Khairat, new Diwan-i-Bandgan- department for slaves, most slaves, died – 1388.

(iv) Nasiruddin Mahmood Tughlaq– 1398- Taimur’s invasion, Nominee of Punjab- Khizr Khan,

  1. Sayyad Dynasty

(i) Khizr Khan – 1414 – 1421, last Alam Sham- 1443 – 1451,

Lodhi Dynasty (1451 – 1526):

  • Bahlol Lodhi (1451 – 1488)
  • Sikander Lodhi (1488 – 1517) – built Agra- 1504, Capital – Agra (1506), broke the jwalamukhi temple at Nagar Kot, Gaz-i-Sikanderi, poetry name- Gulrukhi.
  • Ibrahim Lodhi– (1517 – 1526)- Daulat Khan (governor of Punjab) Lodhi invited Babar, 1st battle of Paniat 1526

Books- Writers

  • Taqiq-i-Hind- Alberuni, (with Ghajnavi)- 1048
  • Laila-Manju- Amir Khusrau,
  • Tughlaq-nama- Amir Khusrau (Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq)
  • Tarikh-i-Ferozshahi, Fatwa-i-Jahadari- ZiauddinBarani
  • Shah namah- Firdausi
  • Rehla- Ibn Battuta (Ibn-Battuta) Morocco

 

PRE QUESTIONS

  1. Who was the first king of Delhi Sultanate
  2. Iltutmish
  3. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
  4. Qutubuddin Aibak
  5. Sikander Lodhi
  1. Who formed ‘Chalisa’
  2. Balban
  3. Qutubuddin Aibak
  4. Razia Sultana
  5. Iltutmish
  1. Taimur came India in
  2. 1175
  3. 1025
  4. 1398
  5. 1192
  1. The most painful tax levied upon Brahmans was
  2. Jizya
  3. Jakat
  4. Kharaj
  5. Khams
  1. Who was the writer of Tughlaq nama
  2. Firdausi
  3. Amir Khusrau
  4. Ibn-Battuta
  5. Al beruni

Mughal period- (1526-1857)

 Babar- (1526-1530)- Birth 1483, Father-Umar Sheikh (Fargana, on the throne of Fargana-1494, Badshah-1507

Indian invasion- 1st-1579 against yusuf jai cast & captured- Bajour & Bhera,

Invited to India by Daulat khan Lodi and Alam Khan Lodi,

First battle of Panipat– 1526 (Babar & Ibrahim Lodi), firstly use of artillery and Tughluma system.

Battle of Khanwa (Agra) – 1527 (Rana Sanga vs Babar)

Battle of Chanderi (Bundelkhand)- 1528 (Medni Rai vs Babar)

Battle of Ghagra– 1529 (Mahmud Lodi vs babar)

Death of Babar– 1530,

Autobiography– Tujuk-i-Babri

Humayun– (1530-1556) – Birth 1507On the thrown of Agra- 1530

Battle of Chausa – 1539

Battle of Kannoj or Bilgram– 1540

Battle of Sarhind (Punjab) -1555.

Death– 1556 (on the stairs of Deen Panah),
Biography- Humayun nama (Written by Gulbadan Begam)

Shershah SuriBirth 1472(Bajbada Hoshiyaar pur) name of childhood- Fareed khan, Father- Hasan khan (Jagirdar of Sasaram- Bihar),

Battle of Chausa– 1539

Battle of Kannoj – 1540.

Winnings– Malwa- 1542, Ranthambhor- 1542, Marwar- 1542, Chittor- 1544, Kalinjar (Bundelkhand, MP) – 1545.

Death – 1545 (Kalinjar) Tomb- Sasaram,

issued coin called –Rupiya (made of silver), Daam (made of copper),

Built- G.T road (Calcatta to Peshawar), land tax 1/3, Patta and Qabuliyat, Taxes direct to centre,

establish Patliputra as Patna in 1541, Purana Qula built by Shershah, starting of postal service, Padmavat – Malik Muhammed Jaysi.

After Shershah- Islam Shah (1545-54), Mohammed Adil Shah (1545-55) and Sikander (1555-1556).

Akbar (1556-1605)– Birth-1542, Ascended the throne 1556 (age-14yrs) – Kalanaur (Punjab), Regent- Bairam Khan, 2nd battle of Panipat– 1560 , End of regency-1560, Petticoat govt.-1560-62, Death of Bairam Khan-1561,Patan (Gujarat).

Important Conquests– Malwa-1556, Aamer-1562, Mewar (capital-Chittor,

Battle of Haldighati-1576 Rana Pratap vs Akbar,

Kalinjar -1569, Gujarat-1571, Asirgarh- 1601 (last)

Sindh, Balochistan, Kabul, Kandhar, South India-Ahmednagar, Daultabad, Gondwana.

Important works– Abolition of slavery-1562, Abolition of Pilgrimage tax-1563, Abolition of Jizya-1564, foundation of Fatehpur Sikri- 1571, Mansabdari system introduced-1574, Ibadat khana was built-1575, Parliament of religions in Ibadatkhana-1578, Din-i-ilahi-1582, Ilahi samvat/calendar-1584, (Ist and only Hindu to follow the Din-i-ilahi was Birbal)

 Capital Fatehpur Sikri to Lahore-1585, Capital Lahore to Agra-1598

Mansabdari, Zabti system, Dahsala system

Buildings by Akbar– Fatehpur Sikri, Agra fort (Red fort) , Lahore fort, Allahabad fort, Buland Darwaza, Humayun tomb.

9 jewels of Akbar– 1. Birbal, 2. Tansen, 3. Todarmal, 4. Bhagwan Das, 5. Maan singh, 6. Abul fazal, 7. Abdul-rahim-khan e khana, 8. Mulla-do-pyaza,  9. Hakim hukam,

Death of Birbal-1586 (Yusufzai Tribes), Death of Abul Fazal-1602

Real founder of mughal empire in India”,
Official language- Persian.

Painters in Akbar’s court- Abdussamad, Dasvant, and Basavan

Written books– Ain-i-akbari, Akbarnama- abdul fazal, Ramcharitmanas- Tulsidas.

Famous translated books– Mahabharata, Panchtantra, Atharva veda, Rajtarangini, Tuzuk-i-babri, Nal-Damyanti.

Death of Akbar-1605, Buried at Sikandara (Agra).

Pre Questions

  1. First battle of Panipat was fought in (establishment of Mughal empire in India)
  2. 1526
  3. 1527
  4. 1528
  5. 1529
  1. The autobiography of Babar is
  2. Ain-i-Babari
  3. Babarnama
  4. Tujuk-i-Babari
  5. None of the above
  1. Who built GT Road
  2. Humayun
  3. Babar
  4. Akbar
  5. Shershah Suri
  1. Rupiya was introduced by
  2. Ferozshah Tughlaq
  3. Mohammad bin Tughlaq
  4. Shershah Suri
  5. Humayun
  1. Buland Darwaza was built in the memory of the victory
  2. Agra
  3. Delhi
  4. Fatehpur Sikri
  5. Gujarat
  1. Who introduced Dahsala system
  2. Birbal
  3. Maan singh
  4. Todarmal
  5. Bhagwandas
  1. Akbar was buried at
  2. Kabul
  3. Delhi
  4. Sikandara (Agra)
  5. Lahore
  1. The tomb of Humayun was built by
  2. Gulbadan Begum
  3. Akbar
  4. Humayun
  5. None of the above
  1. The tomb of Babar is situated in
  2. Kabul
  3. Agra
  4. Delhi
  5. Lahore
  1. Who wrote Humayun nama
  2. Gulbadan Begum
  3. Abul Fazal
  4. Abdul Rahim Khan e khana
  5. None of the above

Mughal Period

Jahangir (1605 – 1627)– Birth- 1569, Zanjir-i-adal (chain of justice) at Agra fort, married with Mihar-un-nisa (Nurjahan)- 1611. 2nd wife- JodhaBai/ JagatGosai, Captain William Hawkins came to Jahangir’s court- 1608, Sir Thomas Roe- 1615 (permission of Trading port at Surat). Sentence to death Guru Arjun Dev (1606), Perfume from rose- Asmat Begum (mother of Nurjahan). Death of Jahangir- 1627, Buried at Shahdara (Lahore)- Bank of the river Ravi,

Golden period of painting art,

Painters –  Ustad Mansoor, Bishandas, (total 10), Ist Building of White Lime- Tomb of Etmad-ud-daula, (made by Nurjahan & first use of Pitradura). Tomb of Jahangir- Nurjahan.

Shahjahan (1627 – 1658): Birth- 1592, (Lahore), Mother- Jagat Gosai/ Jodha Bai, ascended to throne- 1628. Death of Mumtaj Mahal – 1631. Tajmahal- 1632 – 1653, Takht-i-Taus (Agra),

Capital Agra to Delhi- 1648.

Dara Shikoh– Translation in Persian- Bhagwat Gita, Ramayan & Upnishads.

War of succession:-

War of Dharmat- 1658 (near Ujjain), (Dara- Aurangzeb, Dara defeated).

War of  Samugarh (near Agra)- 1658 (defreated Dara by Aurangzeb).

War of Deorai (near Ajmer)- 1659, Aurangzeb – Dara, (Death of Dara).

Shahjahan captured by Aurangzeb- 1658 (fort of Agra),

Death of Shahjahan – 1666.

Aurangzeb (1658 – 1707)- Birth- 1618 (Dohad, Gujarat), 1st time crowned- 1658 (Deccan), 2nd Delhi (1659), Sunni Sectarian, called Zinda Peer, Purander Pact- 1665 (Shivaji- Jai Singh, captured & executed Guru Teg Bahadur (9th Guru of Sikhs)- 1675 (Delhi), after it 10th Guru – Guru Gobind Singh (son of Guru Teg Bahadur organized Khalsa but assassinated in 1708 by an Afghan at Nander (Maharashtra).

Jizya Tax again levied- 1679, maximum Hindu Mansabdar- (337).

Ban on- Kalma on coins, Navroj, singing, dancing, music in his court,  Jharokha view, Tuladan, (expert in veena).

Destroyed temples order- 1665, Somnath, Vishwanath temple (Banaras), Keshav Rai temple (Mathura),

Death- 1707, Buried at – Daultabad (Maharashtra).

Later Mughals- Bahadur Shah-I (1707 – 1712)- other name – Shah Alam- I, Shah-i-Bekhabar,

Jahander Shah – (1712 – 1713)- Abolished Jizya.

Farrukh Siyar – (1713 – 1719)- with the help of sayyed brothers

Muhammad Shah – (1719 – 1749)- Rangeela, invasion of Nadir Shah (Persia) (Iran)- 1739, took away- Takht-i-Taus (peacock throne) & Kohinoor Diamond,

Ahmad Shah – (1748 – 1754)

Alamgir- II – 1754 – 1759,

Shah Alam- II– 1759 – 1806 (Part in Buxar- 1764)

Akbar- II (1806 – 1837)

Bahadurshah- II – Jafar last Mughal emperor, deported to Rangoon (Myanmar)- in 1858, Died- 1862,

3rd Battle of panipat– 1761 (Ahmadshah Abdali – Balaji BajiRao)

Decline of Mughal Empire->

Reasons:-

  1. Aurangzeb’s policies towards Deccan, Rajput & Religion.
  2. Weak successors
  3. Growth of Marathas & Regional power (Avadh, Mysore, Hyderabad etc.)
  4. Foreign invasions (Nadir Shah & Ahmad Shah Abdali)
  5. British conquest of India

Land according of tax:-

  1. Khalsa (royal land)
  2. Jagir (pay or salary)
  3. Suyur-Gal or Madad-i-Mash (gift).

Land according to production:-

  1. Polaj (two times in 1 year)
  2. Parti (Gap of 1 or 2 years)
  3. Chachar- 3 or 4 years Gap.
  4. Banjar
  5. introduction of “Aana” – Shahjahan, base of economy – Rupiya. Daily use- Daam

 

Pre-Questions

  1. Where is the tomb situated of Jahangir
  2. Shahdara (Lahore)
  3. Fatehpur Sikri
  4. Agra
  5. Delhi
  1. Who was the 10th guru of Sikhs
  2. Guru Tegh Bahadur
  3. Guru Arjun dev
  4. Guru Gobind Singh
  5. Guru Ramdas
  1. Who was the last badshah of Mughal empire
  2. Muhammad shah Rangila
  3. Akbar II
  4. Bahadur Shah I
  5. Bahadur Shah II
  1. 3rd battle of Panipat was fought in
  2. 1526
  3. 1556
  4. 1761
  5. 1857

Which of the following was called “Jinda Pir”

  1. Aurangjeb
  2. Bahadurshah Jafar
  3. Shahjahan
  4. Akbar

PAHUJA LAW ACADEMY (PLA)

The advent of Europeans

Portuguese East India Company – 1498

English East India Company – 1600

Dutch East India Company – 1602

French East India Company – 1664

 

Discovery of India by cape route – Vasco-de-Gama, 17th May, 1498

Portuguese – Trading stations– – Calicut (Kerala), (1st capital- Cochin)

1st Governor of Portuguese – Francisco-de-Almeda (1505 – 1509)

2nd Governor of Portuguese – Alfonso-de-Albuquerque (1509 – 1515)

 

Capital transferred Cochin to Goa – 1530 (Nino-di-Cunha)

 

1st Dutch who came to India–  Carnelis- de-Hastman ( 1596)

Dutch 1st station – Masulipattam (1605), other important stations- Surat (1616), Cochin (1663)

 

The end of Dutch in India – 1759 (Battle of Bedra- Bengal)

 

English – 1st English to come to India – John Mildenhall (1603, Lahore)

William Hawkins – 1608, (Jahangir’s Court), 1st trading station – 1608 (Surat)

Thomas Roe – 1615 (Jahangir’s Court) marriage of Charles II,

(England) to Catherine (Portugal) – 1668,

Establishment of Calcutta – 1698 (Job Charnock)

French – 1st trading station – 1668 (Surat) (Francois Caro)

Establishment of Pondicherry – 1674 (Francis Martin), Anglo French conflict (Carnatic Wars)

1stAngo French war – 1746- 1748

2ndAngo French war – 1749 – 1754

3rdAngo French war – 1756 – 1763

Bengal – Murshid Quli Khan (1717 – 1727)

Sirajuddaula – 1756 – 1757, seized English factory at Qasim Bazar, Treaty of Alinagar – 1756. But fortified Fort William by English, Blackhole incident,

Battle of Plassey– 23rd June 1757

Mir Jafar – 1757 – 1760, company was granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar & Orissa.

Mir Qasim – 1760 – 1764, capital Murshidabad to Munger, measuring of Dastak (free duty pass)

Battle of Buxar– 1764

Again Mir Jafar, Death – (1765)

Other nawabs- Nizamuddaula, Saifuddaula, Mubark-ud-daula

Dual Govt. 1765 – 1772. Diwani- Company, direct Admn.- Nawab

End of dual system- Warren Hastings- 1772.

Mysore

Haidar Ali  – became ruler- 1761. Arsenal in Dindigul (Tamilnadu)

1st Anglo- Mysore war – 1766 – 1769, defeated the British (Treaty of Madras- 1769)

2nd  Anglo- Mysore war – 1780 – 1784, Warren Hastings attacked Mahe (Territory of Haidar), Haidar led joint front with Nizam & Maratha & captured Arcot (capital of Carnatic State), Haidar defeated by Iyercoot , death of Haidar- 1782, Tipu Sultan- (1782 – 1799), Treaty of Mangalore (1784)

3rd Anglo- Mysore war – 1790 – 1792, Treaty of Seringapatnam (1792), Co-operation of French Member of Jacobin Club,

4th Anglo- Mysore war – 1799 attacked by Wellesley, death of Tipu- 1799.

Sikh-

  1. Guru Nanak- Birth 1469, (Talwandi- Pak), Sangat, Pangat- (Langar). Death- 1539, (Kartarpur- Punjab).
  2. Angad- (1539 – 1552), First name- Lehna, Gurumukhi script start,
  3. Amardas- (1552 – 1574), Establishment of 22 Gaddis.
  4. Ramdas- (1574 – 1581), establishment of Amritsar, Heredity of Gurupad to Arjun.
  5. Arjundev- (1581 – 1606), Written- Aadigranth, made Harmandir Sahab (Golden Temple), Murdered by Jahangir
  6. HarGovind- (1606 – 1645), establishment of Akal Takht.
  7. Harirai- (1645 – 1661),
  8. Harkishan- (1661 – 1664)
  9. Teg Bahadur- (1664 – 1675)
  10. Govind Singh- (1675 – 1708), Birth- 1666, Patna, 5k’s “Singh”, Khalsa- 1699 “Guru Granth Sahib as Guru” Murdered by Gul Khan (1708, Nander)

 

Preliminary Questions

  1. The first European power, which came to India
  2. British
  3. Dutch
  4. Portuguese
  5. French
  1. In the battle of Plassey, who led the bengal army
  2. Mir Qasim
  3. Mir Jafar
  4. Siraj-ud-daula
  5. Shuza-ud-daula
  1. When was the battle of Buxar fought
  2. 1757
  3. 1759
  4. 1761
  5. 1764
  1. Who founded Golden Temple
  2. Guru Nanak
  3. Guru Gobind Singh
  4. Guru Arjun Dev
  5. None of the above
  1. Which of the European Powers founded Calcutta
  2. British
  3. Dutch
  4. Portuguese
  5. French

 

1757-1857

In 1757 the battle of Plassey was fought between Company & Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula, but after 1764 (Battle of Buxar) the way of English to Conquer India was easier because at that time the Bengal was the most important state of India from the point of view of area, prosperity & the power.

Regulating Act 1773– By this the Governor of Bengal was now also called “Governor General of Company”.

1st Governor General of Company – Warren Hastings (1774 – 1785) Established civil & criminal court separately, 1772. 1st High Court- Calcutta – 1784.

Sanyasi Revolt- 1780

1st News Paper of India– Bengal Gazette- 1780 (James Hikki).

1stMadarsa- 1781 by Warren Hastings.

Establishment of Asiatic Society of Bengal- 1784 (William Zones)

Pitts India Act – 1784, Warren Hastings Resigned & faced impeachment, Ban on private business of employees.

The first translation of Gita in English- Charles Wilkins (Introduction written by- Hastings)

Diwani & Faujdari adalats on district level- Warren Hastings,

Land Revenue Systems

Permanent Settlement or Sthayi Bandobast– in 1793 recommended by John Shore in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Banaras & some part of Madras (Governor General- Cornwallis) Zamindars as the owner of the land, fixation by Zamindars in which 10/11 for Company, 1/11 for Zamindar

Father of civil services– Lord Cornwallis.

Ryotwari System– In Bombay & Madras by Thomas Munro in 1820, Governor General- Lord Hastings. Direct settlement between government & cultivator (for 30 years) on the basis of quality of soil.

Mahalwari– In Ganges Valley, Parts of Central India & Punjab by Holt Mackenzie in 1833 (Governor General- Lord William Bentick).

 Subsidiary Alliance or Treaty of Co-operationLord Wellesley (1798 – 1805),

1st Indian State to accept this– Hyderabad- 1798. Mysore -1799, Awadh- 1801.Scindia- 1804,

Establishment of Fort William college for civil service training

Young Bengal Movement- 1826. Henry Vivian Derozio,

Charter Act – 1833– By this Governor General of Bengal now is Governor General of India. 1st Governor General of India- Lord William Bentick (1828- 1835).

Establishment of Brahmo Samaj– 1828 (Raja Rammohan Rai). Born in 1772 at Radhanagar (Burdwan- W.B.) founded Atmiya Sabha- 1815. Samvad Kaumudi Journal- 1821, Mirat-ul-Akhbar-1822, Vedant College- 1825- Raja Rammohan Roy, Abolition of Sati Rites- 1829, End of Thag- 1830 (Colonel Sliman). Establishment of Calcutta Medical College- 1835,

Medium of Education- English by Mackaley. Ban on murder of girl child.

Reliever (liberator) of Indian Press– Charles Matcalfe- 1835, End of Slavery- 1843 (Allenborough) Kohinoor to Britain- 1849, Doctrine of Lapse. First Satara- 1848. Sambhalpur (Orissa)- 1948. Jhansi- 1853, Nagpur- 1854, Awadh- 1856 (on the basis of mal governance),

Wood Dispatch- 1854 (Related to education)

Rehnumai Majdayasan Sabha- 1851. Dadabhai Nairoji

1st railway line in India- 16 April 1853 (Bombay to Thane- 34 km.) First postal tickets in India- 1854, Summer capital- Shimla, Establishment of Rurki Engineering College- Dalhousie.

Indian High Court Act- 1856 (High Courts in Bombay, Calcutta & Madras),

Widow Remarriage Act- 1856

 

First Anglo – Sikh War – 1845 – 1846, (Lahore Treaty)

Second Anglo – Sikh War – 1848 – 1849.

1st Anglo–Maratha War–1776–1782 (Treaty of Salbai)

2nd Anglo Maratha War – 1803 – 1805 (Surji Arjugaon- Maharashtra)

3rd Anglo Maratha War – 1817 – 1818,

1st Anglo–Nepalese War–1814–1816 (Sugauli Treaty)

1st Burmese War- 1824 – 1826 (Treaty of Yandboo)

2nd Burmese War – 1852 (Lower Burma in India)

3rd Burmese War – 1885

 

Questions

  1. Who was the founder of Asiatic Society?
  2. Robert Clive
  3. John Allenborough
  4. William Jones
  5. None of the above]
  1. Which of the following is related to Subsidiary Alliance
  2. Lord Dalhousie
  3. Lord Welesley
  4. Lord Wellingdon
  5. Lord Lytton
  1. In which year Wood Dispatch was enforced
  2. 1852
  3. 1856
  4. 1858
  5. 1859
  1. In which year Pitt’s India Act came to India
  2. 1781
  3. 1782
  4. 1783
  5. 1784
  1. When was the first train was introduced in India
  2. 1853
  3. 1855
  4. 1859
  5. 1923
  1. Which of the following is called Liberator of Indian Press
  2. Warren Hastings
  3. Lord Cornwallis
  4. Charles Metcalfe
  5. William Bentick

 

  1. The end of Sati Rites became in
  2. 1827
  3. 1828
  4. 1829
  5. 1830
  1. 1st Indian State to accept Subsidiary Alliance was
  2. Mysore
  3. Awadh
  4. Jhansi
  5. Hyderabad
  1. In India 1st newspaper was printed by
  2. Charles Metcalfe
  3. James Hikki
  4. William Jones
  5. None of the above
  1. Who was the first governor general of India
  2. Warren Hastings
  3. Lord Cornwallis
  4. William Bentick
  5. Lord Canning

Revolt of 1857

Causes-

  • Political– Doctrine of lapse
  • Economic– Heavy taxation, destruction of traditional works & handicrafts etc.
  • Socio Religious– Social reforms, abolition of Sati, widow remarriage etc
  • Military– Discrimination with Indian Soldiers.

Immediate Cause– Enfield rifles cartridges

Revolt by Mangal Pandey- 29 March 1857 Mangal at Barrockpore (Bengal). Hang till death- 8 April

Revolt really started on 10 May 1857 in Meerut.

Centre                  Indian Leader                    Beginning Date                 Ending Date            British Suppressor

Delhi                      Bahadur Shah Jafar         11 May, 1857                      21 Sept. 1857          Nicolson & Hudson

 

Kanpur                 Nana Saheb &                   5 June, 1857                       6 Sept. 1857               Collin Campbell

Tantya Tope

 

Lucknow              Begam Hazrat Mahal      4 June, 1857                       21 March, 1858         Collin Campbell

 

Jhansi                    Rani laxmi Bai                     4 June, 1857                       18 June, 1858               Huge Rose

 

Jagdishpur          Kunwar Singh                    August, 1857                      Dec. 1858                 William Taylor &

Vincent Iyer

 

Causes of Failure– Disunity of Indian & Poors, lack of complete nationalism (Sciendia, Nizam etc. helped British). Lack of co-ordination between sepoys, peasants & zamindars etc.

Most significant point of the revolt of 1857 –  Hindu Muslim unity.

Impacts

  • Administration to British Crown.
  • Secretary of State for India a minister of British government responsible for the governance of India.
  • Title- Viceroy
  • Doctrine of Lapse withdrawn & no more annexation
  • More whites in army
  • Growth of nationalism & belief to uproot the British.
  • Divide and rule strategy by Britishers

Book– The Indian war of Independence – V.D. Savarkar

Drain of Wealthà Dada Bhai Nauroji, in the Book- Poverty and Un-British rule in India (1867).

Only Viceroy to be murdered in India- Mayo – (1872 by Sher Ali),

Ist Counting of population- 1872- (Mayo),

he established- Mayo college (1875 Ajmer),

Owen Meredith- Lord Lytton.

Ist Delhi Darbar- 1 Jan. 1877 for Queen Victoria (for title- Qaisar-i-Hind), but at that time famine in Bombay, Madras, Hyderabad, Punjab, Middle India etc.

Vernacular Press Act 1878-  (Lytton)

Indian Arms Act- 1878 (License- compulsory)

1st Factory Act- 1881- Ripon,

End of Vernacular Press Act 1882- (Ripon),

Local self government resolution- Ripon (1882)

Regular counting of population from- 1881 (Ripon),

Hunter commission for education.

Ilbert Billà The court proceeding against White by Indian, “White mutiny”.

 

Establishment of Indian National Congressà 28 Dec. 1885 by A.O. Hume (Viceroy- Lord Dufferin) in Bombay (Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya), 72 Representatives,

1st President Wyomesh Chandra Bannerjee.

Durand line (India Afghanistan)- 1889 (Lord Lensdown).

2nd Factory Act- 1891 (one day leave, Max. 11 hrs. for Women).

1st Indian to compete in British House of Commonsà Dada Bhai Nouroji (1892)

Important incidents of 1893

Meeting of all faiths- Chicago (Swami Vivekananda) (Toofani Hindu),

Ani Basant came to India

M.G. Gandhi to South Africa- for Abdulla Seth.

Newspaper of Tilak- Maratha (English), Kesari (marathi),

Ganpati Festival (1893), Shivaji Festival (1895).

Important Congress Presidents before 1900-

1885- (Bombay)- 1st W.C. Bannerjee,

1887- (Madras)- Badruddin Taiyyabji- 1st Muslim

1888- (Allahabad)- George Yule,

1896- (Calcutta)- Rahimtulla Sayani (1st time Vande-Matram sung)

Pre Questions

  1. The revolt of 1857 started on
  2. 29 March
  3. 30 April
  4. 10 May
  5. 31 May
  1. “The revolt of 1857 was the first war of independence”, it was said by
  2. RC Majumdar
  3. WC Banerjee
  4. Lord Canning
  5. VD Savarkar
  1. Who was the viceroy at the time of 1st regular counting of Indian population
  2. Lord Canning
  3. Lord Ripon
  4. Lord Lytton
  5. Lord Mayo
  1. 1st Delhi darbar was organized in
  2. 1877
  3. 1878
  4. 1911
  5. 1885
  1. Who was the viceroy at the time when Ilbert bill was introduced
  2. Lord Canning
  3. Lord Ripon
  4. Lord Lytton
  5. Lord Mayo
  6. Who was the viceroy at the time of 1857 revolt
  7. Lord Dalhousie
  8. Lord Harding
  9. Lord Canning
  10. Lord Ripon
  1. Who was the viceroy at the time of establishment of Indian National Congress
  2. Lord Dufferin
  3. Lord Lensedown
  4. Lord Harding
  5. Lord William Bentick
  1. The Indian National Song was first time sung in
  2. 1857
  3. 1875
  4. 1893
  5. 1896
  1. Who was the first English president of Indian National Congress
  2. Lord Dufferin
  3. George Yule
  4. William Jones
  5. None of the above
  1. Ganpati festival and Shivaji festival were started by
  2. Madan Mohan Malviya
  3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  4. Mahatma Gandhi
  5. VD Savarkar

1900 – 1918

1st Revolutionist incident in Indian History- Murder of Rand & Aiyrst (Plague commissioner of Pune) (by Damodar & Balkrishna Chapekar in 1897).

Police Commission under Andrew Frazer – 1902 (Curzon)

University Commission & University Act passed – 1904 (Under Thomas Railey)

Victoria Memorial Hall laid of foundation – 1906 (opened – 1921).

Moderate Phase of INC (1885 – 1905)à

Leadersà Dada Bhai Naoroji, Badruddin Taiyyabji, M.G. Ranade, W.C. Bannerjee, Feroz Shah Mehta, Madan Mohan Malviya, Surendra Nath Bannerjee etc.

Extremist Phase (1905 – 1917)à

Leadersà Bal Gangadhar Tilak, lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosh,

Methodsà Boycotting of Government, promotion of Swadeshi & boycott of goods, non-co-operation by boycotting of government services, courts, schools etc.

Partition of Bengal- 1905 – by Curzon, (16 October 1905)

Swadeshi Movement– 1905, bonefire of foreign goods,

“Swaraj” adopted as the goal of INC- 1906 (Calcutta session) by Dada Bhai Naoroji.

Amar Sonar Bangla (1906) by Rabindra Nath Tagore,

The differences between the moderates and the extremists regarding the pace & techniques of swadeshi movement came to Surat split (1907).

Muslim League– In 1906 by Salimullah Khan & Agha Khan (Nawab of Dhaka), at Dhaka, (Viceroy Minto) League supported- partition of Bengal opposed Swadeshi movement and demand separate electrorate of Muslims. This led to communal disfferences between Hindu & Muslims.

Surat Split– 1907- President Ras Bihari Ghosh – 2 Groups- Extremists & Moderates,

Tilak arrested and sent to jail- 1906 (Mandley- Burma), Ban on kesari & Maratha.

Anushilan Samiti– 1906-  P. Mitra

Abhinav Bharat– 1904, V.D. Savarkar,

Try of murder of Judge Kingsford (Judge of Muzzafarpur) – 1908 (Khudiram Bose, Prafull Chaki),

Servants of India Society– 1905, (G.K. Gokhale)

Morley- Minto Reforms– 1909à (Separate electorate for Muslims) Viceroy- Lord Minto.

2nd Delhi Darbar– 1911à Viceroy Lord Harding- George-V, Mary,

Recommendations- (1) end of partition of Bengal (2) Capital Calcutta to Delhi accounced, (transferred in 1912)

Kamagata Maru incident- 1914à (Japanese Ship on Rent by Baba Gurudatt),

Bomb on the car of Lord Harding by Ras Bihari Bose – 1912.

Gadar Party- 1913à San Francisco by Lala Hardayal.

1st Word War– 1914 – 1919à

Gandhiji Returned to India from South Africa- 9 January 1915

Title- Qaisar-i-Hind

Home Rule Movement – 1916, by Tilak (April) & in Sept. by Annie Besant,

Lucknow Pact – 1916à (Congress-Muslim League)à Reason- Anti British feelings among Muslims due to war between Britain- Turkey, chance of Unity. President- Ambika Charan Majumdar, congress accepted separate electrorate & jointly demanded “dominion state”

Sabarmati Ashram– 1916 (Ahmadabad),

Champaran Satyagraha – 1917à Indigo planters (Bihar) against Tinkathiya Ruling.

Home rule league ending- 1917

Father of Indian Unrest- Bal Gangadhar Tilak, (by Valentine Shirole).

1st Hunger Strike by Gandhijià Ahmedabad mill employee strike- 1918.

Khera Satyaagraha- 1918 (No tax movement) due to famine or failure of crops.

 

1911 Session – Calcutta (president – Bishan Narayan Dhar – Jana Gana mana 1st time sung, written by                    Rabindra nath Tagore)

1917 Session – Calcutta (president –  Annie Besant – 1st Women)

 

Pre Questions

  1. When Surat split came into force
  2. 1905
  3. 1906
  4. 1907
  5. 1908
  1. Who was the first women president of Indian National Congress
  2. Sarojini Naidu
  3. Annie Besant
  4. Sucheta Kriplani
  5. None of the above
  1. When was Muslim League formed
  2. 1904
  3. 1905
  4. 1906
  5. 1907
  1. Who established Servants of India Society
  2. Madan Mohan Malviya
  3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  4. Dadabhai Naoroji
  5. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  1. When was Jana Gana Mana was first time sung
  2. 1896
  3. 1905
  4. 1911
  5. 1915
  1. Which of the following was the leader of Moderate group of Indian National Commission
  2. Bipin Chandra Pal
  3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  4. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  5. Lala Lajpat Rai

 

  1. When was the partition of Bengal came into force
  2. 1905
  3. 1904
  4. 1911
  5. 1914
  1. When did Marle Minto Bill came into force in India
  2. 1908
  3. 1909
  4. 1919
  5. 1917
  1. On which date Mahatma Gandhi returned to India
  2. 9 January
  3. 11 January
  4. 30 January
  5. 8 March
  1. Who was the viceroy at time of partition of Bengal
  2. Lord Minto
  3. Lord Harding
  4. Lord Curzon
  5. Lord Chelmsford

1919-1935

Montague- Chelmsford Reforms– 1919

Rowlatt  Act– 1919-  came into effect – 19 March 1919. Viceroy Lord Chelmsford, President Rowlatt, “No appeal, No Lawyer, No Argument”, arrest on just suspect.

Non Cooperation Movement– By Gandhiji- 6 April, 1919,

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre– 13 April, 1919,(arrest of Dr. Satyapal & Saifuddin Kitchlu), Fire command by General Dyer, LG of Punjab- Miachel O’ Dwyer,

Gandhiji surrendered “Qaisar-i-Hind”,

Rabindra Nath Tagore surrendered “Knighthood”,

Commission for the investigation of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre- Hunter Commission.

Miachel O’ Dwyer shot down by Udham Singh in 1940 (London).

Khilafat Movement– 1920- Due to the weakening position of Caliph by Britain.

Non-Co-operation Movement- 1920,  Gandhiji defined “Swaraj as his ultimate aim”.

  • Surrender of titles,
  • Boycott of Court
  • Refusal to govt. job
  • Educational boycott

Prince of Wales came to India– 17 November, 1921,

Incident of Chauri Chaura– 5 February, 1922, (Gorakhpur),

Withdrawal of Non-Co-operation Movement- 12 February, 1922.

Swaraj Party– 1923– Chitranjan Das & Motilal Nehru

Gandhiji president of Congress- 1924 (Belgam, Karnataka)

Hindustan Republican Association- 1924 (Sachindral Nath Sanyal),

Name changed to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association- 1928 by Bhagat Singh.

Congress Session- 1925- Kanpur- President- Sarojini Naidu, (first Indian Women President).

Kakori Incident- 9 August 1925

Executedà Ram Prasad Bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan Singh, Ashfaq-ulla-Khan, (1927).

Simon Commission– established in England- 1927, came to India- 1928 for the possibilities of representative govt.,

Avenge of Lala Lajpat Rai Murder- Murder of Sanders (December, 1928).

Nehru Committee Report– 1928à to determine the principles of the constitution before actually drafting it. It evoked the debate concerning the goal of Dominion state or complete Independence.

Bardoli Satyagraha– 1928- Gujarat (Title of “Sardar” to Ballabh Bhai Patel)

Bomb in Lahore assembly by Bhagat Singh & Batukeshwar Dutt- 1929

Lahore Session– 1929- President Jawaharlal Nehru, Goal of the congress- complete independence, Newly adopted tricolor Flag unfurled- 31 December, 1929, (river- Ravi) 26 January fixed as Independence Day.

Death by Hunger Strike in Prison- Jatindas (1929).

Dandi March/ Salt Satyagraha– (1930)àAgainst the “Salt Rule”, Alongwith 78 followers. Started- 12 March, 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi (Gujarat). Civil Disobdience Movement start- 6 April

The first round table conference (1930)à to discuss the Simon Commission- failed (Not Congress).

Gandhi- Irwin Pactà 8 March, 1931, (Delhi Pact), Civil Disobedience Movement called off and agreed to join Second R.T.C. (1931). In Lahore case Execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, 23 March, 1931.

Second Round table Conference (1931)à Viceroy- Lord Willingdon, PM of Britain- Ramsay Mac Donald,

Civil Disobedience Movement again started- 3 January, 1932, finally end- 7 April, 1934.

Communal Award– 1932à separate representation to Muslims, Sikhs, Europeans & Depressed classes (by Mac- Donald)

Poona Pact (1932)à Separate electoral abandoned and seats for depressed classes in provincial legislature

The leader of Harijans- B.R. Ambedkar.

3rd Round Table Conference (1932)à failed

The Indian leader who participated in all three Round Table Conferences- B.R. Ambedkar.

Gandhiji retired from Active Politics 2 timesà 1st – 1925 to 1927, (for constructive programme of Congres)           2nd – 1934 to 1939

 

Pre Questions

  1. 3rd round table conference was held in
  2. 1930
  3. 1931
  4. 1932
  5. 1935
  1. The only Indian who took part in all three round table conferences
  2. Mahatma Gandhi
  3. Madan Mohan Malviya
  4. R. Ambedkar
  5. Subhash Chandra Bose
  1. Simon Commission was came to India in
  2. 1928
  3. 1925
  4. 1931
  5. 1932
  1. “Jallianwala Bagh Massacre” was became in
  2. 1917
  3. 1918
  4. 1919
  5. 1920
  1. Who was the first Indian women president of Indian National Congress
  2. Sucheta Kriplani
  3. Sarojini Naidu
  4. Laxmi Sehgal
  5. None of the above

PAHUJA LAW ACADEMY (PLA)

1935-1945

Government of India Act- 1935, Bihar & Orissa separate states, Burma Separate state, End of state diarchy and start of Central diarchy.

1st time election- 1937 (Govt of congress in 7 states excluding Bengal, Punjab & Sindh)

1938 Congress Session- Haripura (Gujarat)

1939- Tripuri (MP)

Forward Block- Subhash Chandra Bose (1939).

“The day of deliverance” by Muslim League- 22 Dec. 1939 (resigning day of govt. of Congress)

2nd world War- 1939, Viceroy declared India as a belligerent country,

Congress condition- Independence after world war but in reply “could think over constitutional scheme”

PakistanàIqbal suggested in 1930 a separate muslim state including Baluchistan. Sindh and Kashmir,

1st time name Pakistan- Choudhary Rehmat Ali in 1935.

Muslim League Session (1940) – Lahore – Separate country from India.

August Offerà 8 Aug. 1940, Lord Linglithgow, Goal of British govt.- Dominion Status, responsibility to framing the constitution will be of Indian, but full weight to views of minorities. Congress rejected, Muslim League welcomed due to pre-approval of muslims to consti. Most difficult problem will be solved with partition of India (about consti).

Individual Civil Disobedienceà 1st Vinoba Bhave- 1940, 2nd Jawaharlal Nehru.

Cripps Mission– 1942 (March)à president Stafford Cripps, proposed Dominion status, Gandhiji said “A post dated cheque on a crumbling Bank”.

Quit India Movement– (1942) – 8 Aug- congress meeting- Gowaliya tank (Bombay) passed quit India resolution. Gandhi gave a call “Do or Die”.

9 August arrested- Gandhi ji, Nehru, Patel etc. Gandhiji as a prisoner at – Agha Khan Palace (Pune), others- Ahmednagar fort

Violence on large scale, govt. offices destroyed, telegraph wires cut, railway lines damaged, communication paralyzed.

Movement crushed by govt..

Parallel Govt.- (1) Balia – VP (ChittaPandey), first, (2) Satara- Maharashtra, (3) Talchar- Orissa,

Gandhiji’s Fastà Hunger strike 21 days decided.

CR Formulaà Demarcate districts to muslims in North west & East (Muslim majority) held a plebiscite but defence, trade- commerce & communication jointly, Jinnah objected.

Wavell Plan– 1945à Proposal of Viceroy’s executive council and in it equal representation to Hindu and Muslim, leaders released from jails.

Shimla meeting– 1945- Jinnah’s stand- Muslim would be nominated by only Muslim League.

Indian National Army or Azad Hind Faujà first thought- Captain Mohan Singh 1942 (Singapore),

successfully established by Ras Bihari Bose, Subhash Chandra Bose escaped to Berlin- 1941. Joined INA at Singapore in 1943. Commander- Subhash Chandra Bose in 1943.

3 BrigadesàSubhash, Gandhi, Nehru, Ladies Brigade- Laxmi Bai Regiment.

8 Nov. 1943- Adaman & Nicobar Islands given to Bose by Japan- Name- Shaheed & Swaraj islands.

Provincial Government in Singapore- 1943. Defeat of Japan- 1945

Japanese army to Indian borders (Rangoon) & South East Asian islands,

Death of Netaji- 18 August, 1945. (Birth- 23 Jan. 1897–Cuttack).

INA Trialà 3 officers- P.K. Sehgal, Shah Nawaj Khan, Gurudayal Singh Dhillon, put on trial in Red Fort in Nov. 1945, Convicted on the charge of waging war against the king Emperor.

LawyersàBhula Bhai Desai, Tej bahadur Sapru, J.L. Nehru, Asaf Ali, Md. Ali Jinnah, K.N. Katju.

Netaji” to Subhash Chandra Bose – Hitler (1942).

Father of Nation to Gandhiji- Subhash Chandra Bose (1944),

 

Pre-Questions

  • Who gave the first theory of Pakistan? –
  1. Iqbal
  2. Rehmat Ali
  3. Mohd Adilshah
  4. None of the above
  • Who was the 1st individual civil disobedient? –
  1. Mahatma Gandhi
  2. Choudhary Brahm datt
  3. Jawaharlal Nehru
  4. Vinoba Bhave
  • Who gave the famous quote “Do or Die” –
  1. Rajgopalachari
  2. Subhash Chandra Bose
  3. Jawaharlal Nehru
  4. K. Gandhi
  • Who was the founder of INA –
  1. Subhash Chandra Bose
  2. Rasbihari Bose
  3. Lala Hardayal
  4. Mohan Singh
  • Subhash Chandra Bose elected congress president (first time) in
  1. 1937
  2. 1938
  3. 1939
  4. 1940
  • Cripps Mission came to Indian in
  1. 1941
  2. 1942
  3. 1943
  4. 1944
  • The name given to Nicobar islands by Subhash Chandra Bose –
  1. Hind
  2. Shaheed
  3. None of the above
  • Who led the provincial govt. in Singapore in 1943 –
  1. Mohan Singh
  2. Ras Bihari Bose
  3. Lala Hardayal
  4. Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • Muslim League Session in which Muslim League demanded separate state to itself was held in –
  1. Peshawar
  2. Dhaka
  3. Calcutta
  • Gandhiji said “A post- dated cheque of crumbling bank” to –
  1. Wavell Mission
  2. cripps mission
  3. Cabinet Mission
  4. CR Formula

1945-1947

Indian Navy Mutiny- 18 Feb. 1946- On HMS Talwar (Mumbai), 19 Feb. 1946- On HMS Hindustan (Karachi).

Air Force Munity- 20 Feb. 1946, (Karachi)

Mutiny end on- 23 February (Sardar Patel and Jinnah persuaded to surrender)

Cabinet Missionà 15 June 1946 declared, by Prime Minister- Climent Attlee,

MembersàPathick Lawrance (President), Stafford Cripps, A.V. Alexander. This was to recommendations regarding constitutional reforms. Muslim League accepted- 6 June, Congress accepted- 25 June

Constitutional Assembly elections- on the basis of population

Total members- 389 (292 States, 93 Princley states, 4 chief commissioner provinces of Delhi, Ajmer-Mewar, Coorg, Baluchistan) (after partition- 299)

Direct action campaign by Muslim League- 16 August 1946, (communal riots)

Interim Govt. – 2 September, 1946, Prime Minister- J.L. Nehru, but Muslim League did not and withdrew its acceptance to cabinet mission plan. At last on 26 October, 1946 Muslim League joined interim govt. Interim Govt. Ministersà Prime Minister  & Minister of External Affairs- Jawahar Lal Nehru,

Home Minister & Deputy Prime Minister – Vallabh Bhai Patel

Finance Minister- R.K. Shanmukham Chetty,

Law Minister- B.R. Ambedkar

Defence Minister- Baldev Singh

Minister of Education- Maulana Azad.

Formation of Constituent Assembly – 1st Meeting – 9 December 1946 (in Constitution Club Delhi).

Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha – temporary president.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Permanent President- 11 December, 1946

Objective resolution by Jawahar Lal Nehru- 13 December, 1946,

 

Important Committees and presidents of Constituent assembly

Committee on the rules of procedure- Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Drafting Committee- B.R. Ambedkar

Union Constitution Committee- JawaharLal Nehru

States Committee- JawaharLal Nehru

National Flag Committee- J.B. Kriplani

Attlee’s announcement about independence- 20 February, 1947 (time limit 30 June, 1948), Mountbatten Plan to divide India- 3 June, 1947

Indian Independence Act- 1947à in British Parliament independence bill introduced- 9 July, 1947, Accepted- 18 July, freedom- 15 August, 1947. Boundary Line- Radicliffe

Last Viceroy- Lord Mountbatten

1st Governor General of Free India- Mountbatten,

1st & last Indian Governor General of free India- C. Rajgopalachari.

Congress president at time of Indian freedom- J.B. Kriplani,

British Prime Minister at time of Indian freedom- Climent Attlee (Labour party)

 

Integration of Statesà Total states 562, all signed except Kashmir, Junagarh & Hyderabad,

Kashmir- (Ruler Hari Singh)- signed in Oct. 1947 when Pak invaded Kashmir

Junagarh- by referendum in favour of India in February, 1948

Hyderabad- by “Operation Polo” in September, 1948.

 

French Coloniesà Pondicherry, Chandranagar, Mahe, Karaikal and Yanam (All 1954).

Portugese Coloniesà Goa, Daman- Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In 1954 Dadra & Nagar Haveli Liberated by freedom fighters, Daman-Diu & Goa- by Indian Army in 1961.

1st budget of India- 1860 by john Wilson

Rail Budget separated from General budget- 1924

1st Budget of Independent India- 26 November, 1947 by Shanmukham Chetty.

Rail Budget Merged with General budget again- 2017 (date fixed 1 February)

 

Pre Questions

  1. When was the Cabinet Mission came to India
  2. 1942
  3. 1943
  4. 1946
  5. 1947
  1. When was the 1st meeting of constitutional committee held
  2. 9 January
  3. 9 December
  4. 11 December
  5. 13 December
  1. Who was the president of National Flag committee
  2. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
  3. Jawahar lal Nehru
  4. Rajender Prasad
  5. JB Kriplani
  1. Who was the last viceroy of India
  2. Lord Canning
  3. William Bentick
  4. Warren Hastings
  5. Lord Mountbatten
  1. Who was the defence minister of India in Interim government
  2. Baldev Singh
  3. Ballabh Bhai Patel
  4. Jawahar lal Nehru
  5. J B Kriplani

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