Pivotal Establishments

IMPORTANT INSTITUTION’S (NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL)

Food Corporation of India FCI

The Food Corporation of India was set up in 1965 under the Food Corporation’s Act of 1964. Its primary duty to undertake purchase, store, move/transport, distribute and sell food grains and other foodstuffs.

Objectives of FCI

  •  To provide remunerative prices to farmers.
  •  To help in transforming the crisis management-oriented food security into a stable security system to ensure availability, accessibility and affordability of food grains to all people at all times so that no one, nowhere and at no time should go hungry.
  •  Ensuring food security of the nation by maintaining satisfactory level of operational buffer stocks of food grains.
  •  Distribution of food grains throughout the country for Public Distribution System.
  •  Effective Price Support Operations for safeguarding the interest of farmers.
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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

UNESCO, specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that was outlined in a constitution signed November 16, 1945. UNESCO has 195 Members and 8 Associate Members and is governed by the General Conference and the Executive Board. UNESCO works to create the conditions for dialogue among civilizations, cultures and peoples, based upon respect for commonly shared values. It is through this dialogue that the world can achieve global visions of sustainable development encompassing observance of human rights, mutual respect and the alleviation of poverty, all of which are at the heart of UNESCO’s mission and activities.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established in 1945. As of 2005, 191 countries are its members. The main idea underlying the creation of the IMF was to development an orderly international monetary system, i.e., to facilitate global payment systems and adjust exchange rates between national currencies.

Objectives of IMF

  •  To establish monetary cooperation among the various member countries.
  •  To ensure stability in Foreign Exchange Rates and eliminate the instability of foreign exchange.
  •  To remove or relax these exchange controls.
  •  To promote international trade.
  •  To Promote Investment of Capital in Backward and Underdeveloped Countries.
  •  To Eliminate or Reduce the Disequilibrium in the Balance of Payments.

World Bank

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is also known as the World Bank. The main goal behind this international organization was to help rebuild the economies of war-affected Europe and to assist the development of the world's developing countries.

Objectives of World Bank

  •  The objectives of the world bank include providing long-term capital to member countries for economic development and reconstruction.
  •  It helps to guide long-term capital and improve the balance of payments, thereby balancing international trade.
  •  It ensures that development projects are delivered. Thus it brings transparency to the country from wartime to a peaceful economy.
  •  It also helps by providing guarantees against loads imposed on large and small units and other projects in the Member States.
  •  It also encourages capital investment in member countries by providing guarantees for capital investments and loans.

United Nations Human Rights Council: The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world. The Council has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis. The headquarters of the Council are at the United Nations Office at Geneva in Switzerland.

Objectives of UNHRC

  •  To maintain in place those laws, policies and practices that enhance the enjoyment of the basic human rights;
  •  To withdraw or suitably amend those measures that are destructive or corrosive of Covenant rights;
  •  To take appropriate positive action when a state party has failed to act to promote and protect these rights; and
  •  To consider appropriately the effects in terms of the Covenant of new laws, policies and practices that a state party proposes to introduce in order to ensure that it does not regress in giving practical effect to Covenant rights.

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

The SAARC was founded on 08th of Dec. 1985 and its headquarters is situated in Kathmandu, Nepal. It consists of eight-member countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri-Lanka).

Objectives of SAARC

  •  To promote the welfare of the peoples of South Asia.
  •  To improve the quality of life of the people of South Asia.
  •  To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region.
  •  To provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potentials.
  •  To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries and to cooperate with international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes.

Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

The ASEAN was set up on 08th of Aug. 1967 and its headquarters are situated in Jakarta, Indonesia. It comprises of a total of 10 members including Brunei Darussalam, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Objectives of ASEAN

  •  The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the Association are: (1)
  •  To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region
  •  To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
  •  Promotion of trade and investment.
  •  Maintaining financial market stability in the region.
  •  Promotion of sustainable tourism and people-to-people connectivity.
  •  Enhanced cooperation in food, agriculture and forestry.
  •  Enhanced energy security and cooperation.
  •  Enhanced cooperation in minerals.
  •  Promotion of sustainable development of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), including through the consultations with ASEAN-China Centre, ASEAN-Japan Centre, and ASEAN-Korea Centre.
  •  To strengthen cooperation in science, technology, and innovation (STI).

Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD)

The OCED was set up on 30th of Sep. 1961 and its headquarters are situated in Paris, France. The OECD is an intergovernmental economic organization with 37-member countries, that aims towards stimulating an environment of economic progress and world trade.

Objectives of OCED

  • • The main objective of OCED is to improve the global economy and promote world trade.
  • • The main focus of OCED is to help governments around the world to achieve the following:
    • i. Improve confidence in markets and the institutions that help them function.
    • ii. Obtain healthy public finances to achieve future sustainable economic growth.
    • iii. Achieve growth through innovation, environmentally friendly strategies, and the sustainability of developing economies.
    • iv. Provide resources for people to develop the skills they need to be productive.
  • • It provides an outlet for the governments of different countries to work together to find solutions to common problems.

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The International Court of Justice also called the World Court, is the only international court that adjudicates general disputes between nations, and gives advisory opinions on international legal issues. It is one of the six organs of the United Nations (UN) and is located in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICJ is the successor of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), which was established in 1920 by the League of Nations.

The ICJ is composed of 15 judges. The judges are distributed as per the regions THREE from Africa, TWO from Latin America and the Caribbean, THREE from Asia, FIVE from Western Europe and other states, TWO from Eastern Europe.

Functions of ICJ

  •  To settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted by States, and
  •  To give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies.
  •  To interpret International Law.

International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC), established in 2002, is a pivotal institution designed to address egregious human rights violations on a global scale. It was founded as a permanent tribunal with the mandate to tackle grave offenses such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. Its primary objective is to hold individuals accountable for these heinous acts, serving as a deterrent against future atrocities while providing a semblance of justice and closure to the victims.

Operating as a court of last resort, the ICC intervenes when national legal systems prove inadequate or unwilling to handle cases of significant magnitude. This ensures that perpetrators cannot evade accountability simply because of their political or military status, thereby upholding the principle that justice should be blind and impartial.

Despite facing challenges and limitations, the ICC plays a crucial role in the pursuit of global justice. By investigating and prosecuting individuals accused of unspeakable crimes, it sends a resounding message that impunity will not be tolerated and that perpetrators will be held to account for their actions. In doing so, it offers a beacon of hope to victims, reaffirming their rights and validating their suffering.

Moreover, the ICC contributes to the broader goal of fostering peace and human dignity by promoting accountability and reconciliation in societies scarred by conflict and violence. Its relentless pursuit of justice serves as a reminder that no one is above the law and that the international community stands united in its commitment to upholding fundamental human rights.

While the ICC faces criticism and challenges in its operations, its continued existence and efforts represent a crucial step towards building a world where the scales of justice are balanced, and where the voices of victims are heard and respected.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

The international Atomic Energy Agency was set up on 29th of July 1957 and its headquarters are situated in Vienna, Austria. The IAEA works with its 164 Member States and multiple partners worldwide.

The International Atomic Energy Agency facilitates an environment of peaceful use of nuclear energy and ensures that such use is not for any military purpose, including for nuclear weapons. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) serves as the world’s foremost intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

The IAEA works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA’s work also includes setting the framework for cooperative efforts to build and strengthen an international nuclear safety and security regime and verifying States’ fulfilment of their non-proliferation undertakings under the NPT.

The IAEA administers international safeguards to verify that non-nuclear weapon States party to the NPT fulfil the non-proliferation commitment they have made, “with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive devices.”

United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD)

The United Nations Conference on Trade & Development was set up on 30th of Dec. 1964 and its headquarters are situated in Geneva, Switzerland. The UNCTAD is composed of 194 Member States and works with non-governmental organizations worldwide.

The UNCTAD is the United Nations’ focal point for trade and development, and for interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. Its objective is to assist developing countries, especially the least developed countries, and countries with economies in transition, to integrate beneficially into the global economy. It also seeks to help the international community promote a global partnership for development, increase coherence in global economic policy making, and assure development gains for all from trade.

The UNCTAD aims at

  •  Expanding the capabilities of developing countries in the sphere of trade, investment and development.
  •  Assisting them in overcoming the difficulties arisen as a result of globalization
  •  Integrating on an equal footing into the world economy.

Objectives of UNCTAD in the sphere of competition are:

  •  Analysis and improvement of the international bases of the introduction of competition policy and law.
    Harmonization of competition and trade policy,
  •  Convergence of the national norms of competition with the Set of multilaterally agreed equitable principles and rules relating to the Control of Restrictive Business Practices adopted by the UN Conference.

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

The International Maritime Organization was set up on 17th of March 1958 and its headquarters are situated in London, United Kingdom. The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes maritime safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping.

The IMO consists of an Assembly, a Council and five main Committees. The organization is led by a Secretary-General. A number of Sub-Committees support the work of the main technical committees.

Recent initiatives at the IMO have included amendments to SOLAS, which among other things, included upgraded fire protection standards on passenger ships, the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) which establishes basic requirements on training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers and to the Convention on the Prevention of Maritime Pollution (MARPOL 73/78), which required double hulls on all tankers.

The mission of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as a United Nations specialized agency is to promote safe, secure, environmentally sound, efficient and sustainable shipping through cooperation.

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)

The ISRO came into existence on 15th of Aug. 1969 and founded by Sh. Vikram Sarabhai. The Indian Space Research Organization is the national space agency of India. It operates as the primary research and development arm of the Department of Space, which is directly overseen by the Prime Minister of India while the Chairman of ISRO also acts as the executive of DOS.

The prime objective of ISRO/DOS is the development and application of space technology for various national needs. To fulfil this objective, ISRO has established major space systems for communication, television broadcasting and meteorological services; resources monitoring and management; space-based navigation services. ISRO has developed satellite launch vehicles, PSLV and GSLV, to place the satellites in the required orbits.

It has its headquarters in Bengaluru and Its activities are spread across various centers and units. he activities of ISRO are guided by its Chairman, who would also be the secretary of DOS and Chairman of Space commission – the apex body that formulates the policies and overseas the implementation of the Indian Space Program.

New Development Bank (BRICS Development Bank)

The New Development Bank was established on 15th July, 2014 and its headquarters is present in Shangai, China. The New development bank is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states to support public or private projects through various financial aid.

The main objectives of BRICS can be summarized as under

  •  The main goal is to increase, deepen, and broaden cooperation among its member countries in order to promote growth that is sustainable, fair, and good for everyone.
  •  All of the members’ growth and progress are considered.
  •  To ensure that the economic strengths of each country are used to build relations and eliminate competition where possible.
  •  BRICS is becoming a new and promising diplomatic and political group with goals that go far beyond the original goal.
  •  Initially, it was only expected to solve global financial problems and change the way institutions worked.

United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council was established on 24th Oct, 1945 and its headquarters are situated in New York, United States.

The Security Council consists of fifteen members, of which five are permanent: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The United Nations Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approving any changes to the UN Charter.

According to the Charter, the United Nations has four purposes:

  • • To maintain international peace and security;
  • • To develop friendly relations among nations;
  • • To cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights;
  • • To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.

World Trade Organization (WTO)

The World Trade Organization was founded on 01st of Jan. 1995 and its headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland. The WTO deals with the global rules of trade between nations and helps in regulating international trade between member nations.

Objectives of WTO

  • • To improve the standard of living of people in the member states.
  • • To increase trade of services.
  • • To enlarge production and trade of goods.
  • • To ensure optimum utilization of resources.
  • • To protect the environment.
  • • To accept the concept of sustainable development.
  • • To ensure full employment and increase in effective demand.

World Economic Forum (WEF)

The World Economic Forum was founded on 24th of January 1971 and its headquarters is in Cologny, Switzerland. WEF is an International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation. They are committed to improving the economic state of the world.

The Forum engages the foremost political, business, cultural and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas.

It is independent, impartial and not tied to any special interests. The Forum strives in all its efforts to demonstrate entrepreneurship in the global public interest while upholding the highest standards of governance.

We believe that progress happens by bringing together people from all walks of life who have the drive and the influence to make positive change.

Security and Exchange Board of India

The World Economic Forum was founded on 12th of April, 1988 and its headquarters is in Mumbai, Maharashtra. SEBI became an autonomous body on 30 January 1992 and was accorded statutory powers with the passing of the SEBI Act, 1992 by the Parliament of India.

SEBI has to be responsive to the needs of three groups, which constitute the market:

  • • issuers of securities
  • • investors
  • • market intermediaries

SEBI has three powers rolled into one body: quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial and quasi-executive. It drafts regulations in its legislative capacity, it conducts investigation and enforcement action in its executive function and it passes rulings and orders in its judicial capacity.

For the discharge of its functions efficiently, SEBI has been vested with the following powers:

  •  to approve by−laws of Securities exchanges.
  •  to require the Securities exchange to amend their by−laws.
  •  inspect the books of accounts and call for periodical returns from recognised Securities exchanges.
  •  inspect the books of accounts of financial intermediaries.
  •  compel certain companies to list their shares in one or more Securities exchanges.
  •  registration of Brokers and sub-brokers.
  •  eliminate malpractices in security market.

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)

NABARD was established on the recommendations of B. Sivaramman Committee (by Act 61, 1981 of Parliament) on 12 July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981. Its headquarters is in Mumbai, India.

NABARD is an apex regulatory body for overall regulation of regional rural banks and apex cooperative banks in India. It is fully owned by Ministry of Finance, Government of India. The bank has been entrusted with "matters concerning policy, planning, and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India". NABARD is active in developing and implementing financial inclusion.

It is a Development Bank with a mandate for providing and regulating credit for the development of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other allied economic activities in rural areas to promote prosperity of rural areas.

Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC)

CBFC was established on 15 January 1951 with its headquarters in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The Central Board of Film Certification is a statutory film-certification body in the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India. It is tasked with "regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act 1952.

The board currently issues four certificates. Originally, there were two: U (unrestricted public exhibition with family-friendly movies) and A (restricted to adult audiences but any kind of nudity not allowed). Two more were added in June, 1983 that are U/A (unrestricted public exhibition, with parental guidance for children under 12) and S (restricted to specialised audiences, such as doctors or scientists).

The board's guiding principles are to ensure healthy public entertainment and education and, using modern technology, to make the certification process and board activities transparent to filmmakers, the media and the public also every video have to undergo CBFC certification for telecasting or distributing over any platform in India and suggestible same standards for anywhere in the world.

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)

UPSC was formed on 01st Oct, 1926. It was later reconstituted as Federal Public Service Commission by the Government of India Act 1935; only to be renamed as today's Union Public Service Commission after the independence. It has its headquarters in Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi.

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is a constitutional body of India that conducts direct recruitment of officers to the All India Services and the Central Civil Services (Group A and B) through examinations and appoints officers in various Services under the Government of India.

It shall also assist two or more States, if requested so, in framing and operating schemes of joint recruitment for any services.

The Union Public Service Commission shall be consulted on all matters relating to:

  •  methods of recruitment to civil services and for civil posts
  •  making appointments to civil services and posts
  •  making promotions and transfers from one service to another
  •  the suitability of candidates for such appointments, promotions or transfers
  •  on all disciplinary matters against a civil servant serving in a civil capacity, including memorials or petitions relating to such matters.
  •  on any claim by or in respect of a person who is serving or has served in a civil capacity, that any costs incurred in defending legal proceedings instituted against him in respect of acts done or purporting to be done in the execution of their duty should be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of India.
  •  on any claim for the award of a pension in respect of injuries sustained by a person while serving in a civil capacity, and any question as to the amount of such award.

Bar Council of India (BCI)

Bar Council of India (BCI) is a statutory body established under section 4 of the Advocates Act 1961 that regulates the legal practice and legal education in India. BCI was established in the year 1961 and M. C. Setalvad and C. K. Daphtary were the first chairman and vice chairman respectively.

Bar Council of India (BCI) is a statutory body established under section 4 of the Advocates Act 1961 that regulates the legal practice and legal education in India. Its members are elected from amongst the lawyers in India and represent the Indian bar. It prescribes standards of professional conduct, etiquettes and exercises disciplinary jurisdiction over the bar. It also sets standards for legal education and grants recognition to universities whose law degrees will qualify students to enrol themselves as advocates upon graduation.

Section 7 of the Advocates Act, 1961 lays down the Bar Council's regulatory and representative mandate. The functions of the Bar Council are to:

  • ● Lay down standards of professional conduct and etiquette for advocates.
  • ● Lay down the procedure to be followed by disciplinary committees
  • ● Safeguard the rights, privileges and interests of advocates
  • ● Promote and support law reform
  • ● Deal with and dispose of any matter which may be referred by a State Bar Council
  • ● Promote legal education and lay down standards of legal education.
  • ● Determine universities whose degree in law shall be a qualification for enrollment as an advocate.
  • ● Conduct seminars on legal topics by eminent jurists and publish journals and papers of legal interest.
  • ● Organize and provide legal aid to the poor.
  • ● Recognize foreign qualifications in law obtained outside India for admission as an advocate.
  • ● Manage and invest funds of the Bar Council.
  • ● Provide for the election of its members who shall run the Bar Councils.

National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)

Founded in the year 1988 under the administrative authority of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, having its Headquarters in New Delhi. The National Highways Authority of India is responsible for the development, maintenance and management of National Highways entrusted to it and/or matters connected or incidental thereto.

Aim of NHAI:

  •  Developing, maintaining and managing National Highways (NH) across the country.
  •  Collecting fees/tolls on NH, regulating and controlling the plying of vehicles on NH for proper management.
  •  Developing and providing consultancy and construction services on a national and international level. Also, conducting research activities that help develop, maintain and manage highways or other facilities thereat.
  •  Advising the Central government on issues related to NH.
  •  Formulating and implementing schemes for NH development.
  •  Constructing offices and residential buildings for NHAI employees.
  •  Providing facilities and amenities to NH users necessary for the smooth flow of traffic on such highways.
  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): CSIR was established on 26th September 1942, under the leadership of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar. It has its headquarters in New Delhi. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research is a research and development organization in India to promote scientific, industrial and economic growth. The council is presided over by the Prime Minister of India.

Objective:

  •  CSIR is the largest research and development organization in India and functions under the Ministry of Science and Technology.
  •  It enhances the quality of life of the citizens of India through innovative Science and Technology.
  •  Enhance quality of life by globally competitive R&D.
  •  to develop sustainable solutions and capacity building to fulfil dream of “Atmanirbhar Bharat”.